US AIR FORCES TRANSPORTATION PART 2
DAYTON, Ohio -- The C-141 "Hanoi Taxi" taxis past the National Museum of the United States Air Force after its final flight on May 6, 2006. The "Hanoi Taxi" was the first aircraft to return Vietnam prisoners of war to the United States on Feb. 12, 1973. (U.S. Air Force photo by Jeff Fisher)
C-17A GLOBEMASTER III TRAVIS AFB U.S. (Air Force PHOTO BY HEIDE COUCH)
The US Army Communications had several ways to get informated to all it's unit commanders. During the Civil War both runners and carrier pidgins were used to pass information. At one time it only by taking a soldier and giving him a message telling him to run to all the commanders that needed the information. This method was slow and dangers and if the runner was captured it would get in to the hands of the enemy. By the time World War I came along the telephone had been invented and phone wires were laid and it could be delivered by a crude field phone. But wires would get cut and a runner still had to be used. By the time World War II came along there was radio and a wireless hand held battery powered radio was used there also was a more powerful battery powered radio in a large back pack. Up to the end of the Korean War these two radios were used. By the time Vietnam came along there were Microwave and Satellite communication with teletype relay center and a communications man with every unit from company size to core size. From the time of World War I to the Korean war all communications was under the Signal Core. Now it is controlled by Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM) Now they use all of these except teletype plus Drones with cambers equipped with camera, cell phones and perhaps things we don't know about because of them being classified.
I'm not even sure what you do or what this photo is - but my dad was in Company A of the 3184th Signal Service battalion, and several years after he died we found the attached photo - the contrast has been enhanced a bit to help legibility. He always bragged that he was a communications expert in the way (his discharge papers say "installer repairman") and you can see the huge cables coming out of the hole in the photo - so when I came across your website, while researching his involvements during the war, I thought you might find the photo useful. Hope the photo is of some use. Rosemary McGinn
These photos of Communications Equipment used in the Pacific by the Signal Corps are from the scrapbooks of Lt. Colonel O. Howard David Smeyer, Sr. Any assistance you could provide in helping identify these pictures would be appreciated. Send email to "combatTV" -at- jodavidsmeyer.com
October 13, 1943 Rhombic transmitting antenna termination (Type D) at the GHQ Radio Section, Port Moresby, New Guinea (9S-147E) Photographer Ovid Di Fiore
When O. Howard David Smeyer first came to Australia to set up communications for MacArthur, he was assigned an Australian crew to work with him. As an telecommunications engineer for Western Electric, he knew how to bring a modern communications system to the islands, but his crew disagreed. They told him what he was doing wouldn't work. The telepoles would come down because the "The 'roos will jump through the wires and the ants will eat the poles." They were right, the kangaroos got tangled in the wires and the appetite of the ants devastated the poles. New ways to string wire had to be invented as they went along.
WALKIE TALKIE 170px-PRC-6.agr used in War World II, Korea and Vietnam.
Soldier using a PRC-77 (top) with the KY-38 "Manpack," part of the NESTOR voice encryption system that was used during the Vietnam War.
EE-8 FIELD PHONE USED BETWEEN COMMANDS. SOMETIMES BETWEEN COMPANY COMMANDER AND OUTPOST GUARDS. USED IN WORLD WAR II AND KOREA
RQ-7-Shadow-Landing An RQ-7B Shadow unmanned aircraft operated by Soldiers of Company D, 588th Brigade Engineer Battalion, 3rd Armored Brigade Combat Team, 4th Infantry Division, touches down on a hasty landing strip built on a dirt road at Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany. These US Military Drone images were photographed by military veterans and service members..
COMMUNICATIONS ELECTRONS COMMAND
US AIR FORCE COMMUNICATIONS
Before the Air Force became a separate branch of the uniformed military their communications was run by the US Army Signal Corps. They were part of the Army from August 1907 to September 1947
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, and one of the seven American uniformed services. Initially formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U.S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947. It is the youngest branch of the U.S. Armed Forces, and the fourth in order of precedence. The USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, and command and control.
The U.S. Air Force is a military service branch organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense. The Air Force, through the Department of the Air Force, is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, and is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation. The highest-ranking military officer in the Air Force is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, who exercises supervision over Air Force units and serves as one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Air Force components are assigned, as directed by the Secretary of Defense, to the combatant commands, and neither the Secretary of the Air Force nor the Chief of Staff of the Air Force have operational command authority over them.
Along with conducting independent air and space operations, the U.S. Air Force provides air support for land and naval forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field. As of 2017, the service operates more than 5,369 military aircraft, 406 ICBMs and 170 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget and is the second largest service branch, with 321,444 active duty airmen, 141,800 civilian personnel, 69,200 reserve airmen, and 105,700 Air National Guard airmen.
Air Force communications command changed from Air Communication Service (ACS) to Air Force Communications Service (AFCS). The Air Force Communication Service was founded after the Air Force became a different branch or the United States Uniformed Services. I was changed to the Air Force Communication Service in early 1960. I was with the 2005th Communication Squadron in Siegalbach Germany.
DURING WORLD WAR II, THE KORAN WAR AND VIETNAM WAR ALMOST ALL OF MILITARY COMMUNICATIONS WAS DONE BY ENCRYPTED TELETYPE MESSAGE. TO BE ABLE THE TRANSMATE THE INFORMATION IT HAD TO BE CANGED FROM A HARD COPY TO A PUNCHED TAPE THAT WAS TRANSMITTED AND THEN MADE INTO A HARD COPY AT THE FINAL DESTINATION. NOT ALL MESSAGES HAD TO BE ENCRYPTED. TO ENCRYPT A MESSAGE THE TAPE HAD TO BE RUN THOUGH A ENCRIPTING MACHINE THAT WOULD MAKE A NEW WHEN PRINTED WOULD MAKE NO SENSE. IT WAS BROKEN DOWN INTO GROUPS OF 6 LETTERS. TO MAKE IT READABLE IT HAD TO BE RUN THROUGH A DECRYPTING MACHINE.
KL-7 cipher machine is the type we used in the com center when a message had to be encrypted from the punched tape. The 2127 Com Squadron Yokota AB Japan.
WR-37 This is the encryption device we used at the 2049 Communications Com Group McClellan AFB Sacramento California.
This is the model 19 teletype machine it is the one used in 2127 Base Com Center Yokota AB Japan
This is the Klineschmidt Model 26 used in Base Ops Yokota AB Japan
Teletype was declared officially obsolete in August 2005
This is a Plan 55 Automatic Tape Relay Station manufactured and maintained by Western Union a far as I know there were 3 overseas centers. Siegelbah Germany, Crouton England and Camp Drake Japan. There were 5 in the US 2 in California McLellan AFB in Sacramento, Norton AFB San Bernardino 1 in Oklahoma Tinker AFB Tulsa 1 in and one in Maryland Edwards AFB Prince George County
MARINE CORPS COMMUNICATIONS
After Plan 55 there came Autodin which was run by computers and storage tapes for retrievable of data incase it was received at a Com Center garbled. Retrievable was done from a magnetic tape and sent to the only teletype machine to be reran to the Com Center this was called the Service Section.
The history of Plan 55 Plan 55-A was one in a series of store and forward message switching systems developed by Western Union and used from 1948 to 1976 for processing telegrams. It is an automated successor to Plan 51, which commenced service in 1951 in a nationwide network of the U.S. Air Force, but required semi-automatic operation
The Automatic Digital Network System, known as AUTODIN or ADNS, is a legacy data communications service in the United States Department of Defense. AUTODIN originally consisted of numerous AUTODIN Switching Centers (ASCs) located in the United States and in countries such as England and Japan.
The design of the system, originally named "ComLogNet", began in 1958 by a team of Western Union, RCA and IBM. The customer was the U.S. Air Force and the system's purpose was to improve the speed and reliability of logistics traffic (spare parts for missiles) between five logistics centers and roughly 350 bases and contractor locations. An implementation contract was awarded in the fall of 1959 to Western Union as prime contractor and system integrator, RCA to build the 5 switching center computers and IBM for the compound terminals which provided for both IBM punched card and Teletype data entry. The first site became operational in 1962. During the implementation the government realized the broader value of the system and transferred it to the Defense Communications Agency (DCA) which renamed it "AUTODIN". In 1962 the government solicited competitive bids for a 9 center expansion which was won by Philco-Ford.
Deployment started in 1966. On March 22, 1968, Autodin multimedia terminal in Europe became operational at Ramstein Air base in Germany. This system linked more than 300 Air Forces bases, material areas, depots and other authorized agencies into a single communications network. In the ASCs; operational until the late 1980s the Philco-Ford OL9 computers were still in use with periodic technological updates. In the 1988 to 1990 timeframe an initiative by the Department of Defense for "off the shelf" hardware initiated a replacement of the Philco-Ford processors by DEC VAX 11/780 series systems.
This is a Autodin Relay Center the man is in front of the center control center. There is a smaller unit used to retrieve messages for retransmission. It should be the unit on the table on the right of the photo. (Courtesy of the AFNIC History Office)
Pre AUTODIN view of a data communications manual relay facility, late 1950s early 1960s. (Courtesy of the AFNIC History Office)
Two computer operators preparing messages for transmission in an AUTODIN terminal. (Courtesy of the AFNIC History Office)
Interior view of an AUTODIN automatic switching center. (Courtesy of the AFNIC History Office) Interior view of the McClellan AFB AUTODIN Switching Center. (Courtesy of the AFNIC History Office) AUTODIN activation ceremony
Lt Gen Alfred D. Starbird, US Army, Director of the Defense Communications Agency, and Brig Gen J. Francis Taylor, USAF Director of Command Control Communications, HQ USAF during the Andrews AFB Air Force Data Communications (AFDATACOM) and Automatic Digital Information Network (AUTODIN) activation ceremony, 27 Feb 1963. (Courtesy of the AFNIC History Office)
It was hard to find much about the Marine Corps communications equipment. Maybe because the are apart of the Us Navy. The Marines probably the same field equipment as did the US Army.
The Office of U.S. Marine Corps Communication plans, coordinates, and implements communication strategies designed to build understanding, credibility, trust, and mutually beneficial relationships with the domestic and foreign publics on whom the Marine Corps' success or failure ultimately depends.The Office of U.S. Marine Corps Communication serves as a liaison between Marines and the public. It facilitates the instantaneous flow of information that is generated through the 24-hour news cycle, the Internet and cellular communications.
Tow Marines setting up a field radio date unknown photographer unknown
Major General Crenshaw and MGySgt Lawrence Major General Crenshaw and MGySgt Joseph G. Lawrence take time for a photo after MGySgt Joseph G. Lawrence accepted a Congressional Gold Medal on behalf of Joseph F. Lawrence (USMC WWII) during a medal presentation to families of Montford Point Marines.
Aug 21, 2015 Camp Lejeune, North Carolina - On August 20th 2015 at Camp Johnson Parade Field The 8th Communication Battalion Communications Chief, MGySgt Joseph G. Lawrence and his family accepted a Congressional Gold Medal on behalf of Joseph F. Lawrence (USMC WWII) during a medal presentation to families of Montford Point Marines. Presenting the Gold Medal was - Major General Crenshaw
US MARINE RADIO OPERATOR WWII PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN
8th Communication Battalion taking time out of its morning to promote two Marines to the rank of Sergeant on the 3rd of August 2015. Sergeant Griffin and Sergeant Finney, will proudly carry on the legacy of those before them as they move into their new roles as Sergeants in the United States Marine Corps. Job well done Gentlemen.
"Inflatable Satellite Antenna" US Marine Corps | Glassdoor Photos
FESS PARKER-MARINES-WW2 RADIO OPERATOR IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN
A US MARINE USING A KEY TO TRANSMITE MESSAGES IN MORSE CODE PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN
Like all means of communication from the runners, signal flags and radio the Navy has gone high tech. I am not going to use items in this post any of the high tech ways of communication. I will only show the things that were used from WW II, Korean and Vietnam wars.
While someone not acquainted with maritime activity might think the colorful flags are simply decorative and traditional, the Nautical Flags Alphabet actually helps represent an important system of communication between sailors when at sea. Maritime signal flags – or international code flags – are used to signal brief messages either between two ships, or between ship and shore. Each flag can be used individually or in combination with other flags for additional messages.
The system includes 26 square flags which represent the letters of the alphabet, ten numeral pennants, one answering pennant, and three substituters or repeaters. Red, blue, yellow, black, and white are the only colors that can be readily discerned at sea. Further, the colors can only be used in specific combinations in order to guarantee optimal clarity from a distance; flags are either solid colored, or use the combinations of red and white, yellow and blue, blue and white, or black and white.
The number of flags used also determines the nature of the message. The most urgent signals are sent via a single flag, while distress and maneuvering signals are most often communicated with a combination of two flags. General codes, such as points on the compass, relative bearings and standard times utilize three flag combinations; names of ships, geographic information, time and position and latitude/longitude bearings require the use of between four and seven flags.
A US Navy crewman signals the letter 'U' using flag semaphore during an underway replenishment exercise (2005)
Teletype printers and teletype punch tape date unknown photographer unknown
Navy Radioman date unknown photographer unknown